Vulnerability of Ancient Dry-joint Masonry Towers


  • Funda Gençer
    Department of Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts, Design and Architecture, Manisa Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa, Şehzadeler, Halil Erdoğan Street, Turkey
  • Mine Hamamcıoğlu-Turan
    Department of Architectural Restoration, Faculty of Architecture, İzmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Mahallesi, 35430 Urla-İzmir, Turkey
  • Hasan Engin Duran
    Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, İzmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Mahallesi, 35430 Urla-İzmir, Turkey
  • Engin Aktaş
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, İzmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Mahallesi, 35430 Urla-İzmir, Turkey


Since ancient times, different techniques have been favoured to provide the integrity of masonry buildings at risk from earthquakes. Earthquake consciousness and determination of related effective techniques have always been a challenging subject. In this study, morphologic characteristics affecting structural resistance of dry-joint masonry towers, and their impact on each other are examined with the help of the statistical analysis. The effectiveness of each characteristic is discussed in relation to the earthquake risk level of the regions to decipher awareness of precautions necessary for structural resistance of dry-joint masonry under earthquake risk in ancient periods.
The methodology includes gathering morphologic data with the conventional site survey techniques of architectural restoration; visual analysis of the dataset; design of hypothetical towers by combining possible characteristics of real towers; quasi-static tilt analysis of hypothetical towers with MsPhysics 1.0.3 software; regression analysis of the collapse limits for different morphologic configurations with EViews 4 software, and the proposition of a vulnerability framework and application of the framework to case studies.
The parameters affecting structural resistance are listed in the order of high to low impact as a staggering ratio, stone depth, ratio between block length and height, proportional relationship between height and length, opening area, number and position and the distribution of header stones. The application of the framework to case studies indicated consciousness awareness of the risk and the taking of precautions against lateral loading of dry-joint masonry in ancient periods.


vulnerability, masonry, statistical analysis, quasi-static analysis

Citation data from Crossref and Scopus

Published Online


How to Cite

Gençer, F., Hamamcıoğlu-Turan, M., Duran, H. E., Aktaş, E. (2020) “Vulnerability of Ancient Dry-joint Masonry Towers”, Periodica Polytechnica Architecture, 51(2), pp. 165–177.