Characterization on Performance, Morphologies and Molecular Properties of Dual-Surfactants Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride Ultrafiltration Membranes
This paper addressed the pioneering work on the effects of dual surfactants component on the performance, morphologies and molecular properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/polyether glycol (PVDF/PEG 200) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The PVDF surfactant membranes were prepared via dry/wet via phase inversion technique with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/Tween 80 and Triton X-100/Tween 80 into polymer solution. Experimental data revealed that the dual surfactants improved the membrane performance up to 120.84 L/m2h and 82 % of permeate flux and rejection of bovine serum albumin, respectively. In addition, 2 wt% of dual surfactants also found to induce the growth of fine finger-like and macro-voids cavities inside the membranes while the FTIR spectra proved that the existence of dual surfactants in PVDF membranes produced better molecular alignment which contributed significantly towards better flux and good rejection. In conclusion, the used of dual surfactants in the PVDF ultrafiltration membranes improved the performance-properties of the membranes and extending the possibly versatile for the membrane to be used for more applications.