Investigation of Fermentation Regimes for the Production of Low-alcohol and Non-alcohol Beers

Authors

  • Ivan Petelkov
    Affiliation

    Department of Wine and Beer Technology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

  • Vesela Shopska
    Affiliation

    Department of Wine and Beer Technology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

  • Rositsa Denkova-Kostova
    Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

  • Kristina Ivanova
    Affiliation

    Department of Food Technologies, Institute of Canning and Food Safety, 154 Vasil Aprilov Blvd., 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

  • Georgi Kostov
    Affiliation

    Department of Wine and Beer Technology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

  • Velislava Lyubenova
    Affiliation

    Institute of Robotics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, P. O. B. 79, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

https://doi.org/10.3311/PPch.15975

Abstract

The combination of modified mashing method and arrested fermentation for the production of low-alcohol and non-alcohol beers was studied. Therefore, five regimes for fermentation of wort with reduced fermentable sugar content with top-fermenting yeast strain at low temperatures and pitching rates were investigated. According to the fermentation dynamic results the decrease in the fermentation temperature from 10 °C to 5 °C at pitching rate of 109 Colony Forming Units cm−3 ( CFU cm−3 ) led to significantly reduced concentrations of ethanol and secondary metabolites in beer. The temperature decrease from 10 °C to 7 °C at pitching rate of 107 CFU cm−3 resulted in a decrease in the alcohol concentration and increase in all the secondary metabolite concentrations except for the vicinal diketones concentration. Data show that yeast biomass does not grow at 5 °C and at inoculum concentration of 107 CFU cm−3, which makes fermentation impossible. Fermentation kinetics using Monod's model supplemented with product inhibition was also investigated. Up to 1.7 % of alcohol accumulates in the beer in some of the variants within 7 days. At low fermentation temperatures, yeast biomass utilizes part of the substrate to maintain its vital activity under stress fermentation conditions, which leads to a reduction in the amount of alcohol synthesized. The synthesis and reduction of the secondary metabolites was delayed compared to conventional beer fermentation. The sensory evaluation of the beers produced showed that the most appealing beer was the one produced at 10 °C and pitching rate of 109 CFU cm−3.

Keywords:

low alcohol beer fermentation regimes, fermentation kinetic, modelling, limited fermentation

Published Online

2021-01-11

How to Cite

Petelkov, I., Shopska, V., Denkova-Kostova, R., Ivanova, K., Kostov, G., Lyubenova, V. “Investigation of Fermentation Regimes for the Production of Low-alcohol and Non-alcohol Beers”, Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 65(2), pp. 229–237, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPch.15975

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Section

Articles