Utilization of Industrial Rosa damascena Mill. By-products and Cocoa Pod Husks as Natural Preservatives in Muffins
Cocoa Pod Husks (CPH) and by-product from supercritical CO2 extracted Rosa damascena Mill. (RDCO2) were used as biopreservatives in muffins. Both by-products were rich source of polyphenols: 28.3 ± 0.6 mg/g Dry Weight (DW) and 17.9 ± 0.7 mg/g DW RDCO2 and CPH, respectively, and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity: 449.1 ± 8.5 µmol Trolox Equivalents (TE)/g DW (by ORAC method) and 58.9 ± 2.1 µmol Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g DW (by HORAC method) for the RDCO2, and 373.8 ± 9.0 µmol TE/g DW (by ORAC) and 36.8 ± 3.8 µmol GAE/g DW (by HORAC) for the CPH. RDCO2 extracts successfully inhibited development of several important pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms causing microbial spoilage of food systems. The control muffins were good for consumption up to the 17th day, while the products supplemented with RDCO2 and CPH: until 20th day of storage at 22 ± 0.5 °C. The amount of dietary fibers in muffins supplemented with both by-products increased 3 times (8.57 ± 0.12 %) compared to control (2.91 ± 0.12 %) and the polyphenolic compounds increased 2.5 times (from 50.0 ± 0.3 for the control to 185.9 ± 0.6 mg/g DW). For the first time by-product of supercritical CO2 extraction of Rosa damascena Mill. was characterized and used as natural and cheap biopreservative.