Produced Water from Oil-Gas Plants: A Short Review on Challenges and Opportunities
The produced water, which could be a complex mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds (mostly salts, minerals and oils) is a major wastewater stream generated during oil and gas production processes. Due to increase oil and gas exploration and production, especially from unconventional resources like shale oil and gas reservoirs, the volume of this effluent production is increasing around the world and its discarding to the environment is one of the global concerns. There are various physical and chemical methods to treat the produced water. However, a comprehensive and deep understanding of each issue can lead to a better and more efficient solution. In this study, various physical and chemical treatment methods for produced water have been reviewed based on the latest findings and recently published articles on this topic. Moreover, challenges and opportunities of each of these treatment methods have been fully discussed. Also potential applications for reusing the treated PW have been suggested and discussed finally.