Experimental Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Frozen Soils - A Case Study of Tabriz Subway
The mechanical properties of frozen ground are key parameters in design and implementation of artificial ground freezing (AGF) in underground projects. Soil samples were obtained from the urban underground railway project site in Tabriz, Iran. The specimens were classified as SP and CL according to the USCS. The specimens were remolded in accordance with the site conditions. Over 120 triaxial compression tests were conducted on the frozen samples at different temperatures, confining pressures and strain rates. The results show that the frozen SP and CL soils exhibit strain-softening and strain-hardening behaviour, respectively. In all cases, Young’s modulus increases with decreasing temperature and increasing strain rate and confining pressure. Also, the shear strength increases with decreasing temperature and increasing strain rate. In all tests, the Young’s modulus and shear strength of the SP soil are greater than the CL soil. Based on the results of this research, the application of artificial ground freezing was recommended for coarse-grained and non-cohesive soils like SP in the Tabriz underground railway project.