Integration of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and UAS Photogrammetry in Geological Studies: Examples from Croatia
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in combination with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and modern computer based photogrammetry is currently the best approach for the acquisition of high-resolution 3D spatial information. Highly realistic 3D spatial data sets are becoming the basis for detailed geological studies, providing a multidisciplinary approach in the study and research of both underground and above ground sites. To emphasize the variety of possible implementations of these state-of-the-art methodologies, four characteristic and yet quite different case studies are presented where such geodetic techniques are successfully employed. The presented case studies demonstrate that TLS and UAS photogrammetry, as non-contact surveying methods, are able to reduce survey time and total project costs. As added value, they provide high-resolution data that can be analyzed in a virtual environment from a sedimentological or structural aspect. Stored digital documentation also allows future multi-temporal spatial data comparison at any timeframe and scale, thus enhancing any target geological data gathering and analyses at the studied sites.