# Optimal Design of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Walls Utilizing Eleven Meta-Heuristic Algorithms: A Comparative Study

• Ali Kaveh
Affiliation

Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran-16, Iran

• Kiarash Biabani Hamedani
Affiliation

Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran-16, Iran

• Taha Bakhshpoori
Affiliation

Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, East of Guilan, University of Guilan, Rudsar-Vajargah, Iran

### Abstract

In this paper, optimum design of reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls is performed under static and dynamic loading conditions utilizing eleven population-based meta-heuristic algorithms. These algorithms consist of Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithm, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization algorithm, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Cuckoo Search algorithm, Charged System Search algorithm, Ray Optimization algorithm, Tug of War Optimization algorithm, Water Evaporation Optimization algorithm, Vibrating Particles System algorithm, and Cyclical Parthenogenesis Algorithm. Two well-known methods consisting of the Rankine and Coulomb methods are used to determine lateral earth pressures acting on cantilever retaining wall under static loading condition. In addition, Mononobe-Okabe method is employed for dynamic loading condition. The design is based on ACI 318-05 and the goal of optimization is to minimize the cost function of the cantilever retaining wall. The performance of the utilized algorithms is investigated through an optimization example of cantilever retaining wall. In addition, convergence histories of the algorithms are provided for better understanding of their performance.

Keywords: structural optimization, cantilever retaining wall, meta-heuristic algorithms, Mononobe-Okabe method, Rankine method, Coulomb method
Published online
2020-01-17
How to Cite
Kaveh, A., Biabani Hamedani, K., Bakhshpoori, T. “Optimal Design of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Walls Utilizing Eleven Meta-Heuristic Algorithms: A Comparative Study”, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 64(1), pp. 156-168, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPci.15217
Issue
Section
Research Article