Characterization of Historic Binders and Stones of a Ruined Medieval Church (Hungary)
Construction materials of a partly ruined Medieval church of Central Hungary were studied in details to assess its conditions and to obtain information on the phases of construction. At first, digital images were taken to create a 3D model of the remaining walls. The material properties were measured in situ using non-destructive test methods. Strength parameters of stone and render were assessed by Schmidt hammer, while moisture content was measured by a portable moisture meter. According to lithological descriptions and thin-section analyses limestone prevail in the monument. The most common Miocene limestone is represented by various lithologies, such as cemented macro porous limestone, fine-grained porous limestone, oolitic limestone and bioclastic limestone. Mesozoic micritic well cemented limestone and Tertiary limonitic sandstone were also identified at the ruins. The most common weathering forms are selective dissolution, multiple flaking and biological colonisation. Renders used in the structure represents the long history of the structure from Medieval lime-based mortars to Portland cement containing latest applications. The former one is composed of quartz send in lime binder. According to Schmidt hammer tests, the rebound values of the replacement stone is higher than that of the original porous limestone. There is a distinct difference in the moisture content of the stone and render. Orientation/exposure of the wall also influences the moisture content. The gathered information allows for designing better repair methods and helps in the planning of the maintenance of the medieval stone heritage.