Characterization and Liquefaction Hazard Assessment of Two Hungarian Liquefied Sites from the 1956 Dunaharaszti Earthquake
The seismicity of Hungary can be considered moderately active, nevertheless contemporary reports from the past approx. 350 years documented surface manifestations of liquefaction occurrences. The last such earthquake was the 1956 Dunaharaszti ground motion, for which the location of two liquefied sites could be identified approx. 60 years after the event. This provided an excellent opportunity to analyze possibly the only accessible liquefied sites in Hungary. Analysis of the two sites included field and laboratory tests allowing the back-calculation of maximum horizontal ground acceleration of the earthquake. This parameter was previously unknown because the closest seismometer saturated during the event. The performed back-analysis using the principles of paleoliquefaction studies was the first of such analyses in the country. In areas with low to moderate seismicity, geotechnical engineers often neglect and overlook liquefaction hazard, however, when it is addressed, the hazard is often overestimated due to improper characterization of the seismic loading and site characterization. To explore this observation more deeply, probabilistic seismic and liquefaction hazard assessment were carried out at the two liquefied sites and it was found that this conclusion is also valid for Hungary, but the degree of conservatism of the pseudo-probabilistic procedures decreases with increasing earthquake return period (lower annual probability of occurrence).