Effect of Sand Fouling on the Dynamic Properties and Volume Change of Gravel During Cyclic Loadings


  • Meysam Bayat

    Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, 8514143131, Najafabad, Iran



Understanding the factors that influence the dynamic behavior of granular soils during cyclic loading is critical to infrastructure design. Previous research has lacked quantitative study of the effects of fouling index (FI), mean effective confining pressure, relative density, shear strain level and anisotropic consolidation, especially when the effective vertical stress is lower than the effective horizontal stress on the dynamic behavior of gravelly soils. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the dynamic behavior and volume change of both clean and fouled specimens for practical applications. To this end, cyclic triaxial tests with local strain measurements under both isotropic and anisotropic confining conditions were conducted. It is found that the fouled specimen with 50 % sand (i.e. the specimen which contains 50 % gravel and 50 % sand) has the highest shear modulus at low shear strain levels and the largest volume reduction and damping ratio at large shear strain levels. The results of tests indicate that the effect of fouling index on the shear modulus is reduced at large shear strain levels. Volumetric contraction due to the increase in mean effective confining pressure is more significant at large shear strain levels. The results also indicate that the stiffness of the specimens under anisotropic compression mode are larger than those in extension or isotropic mode.


gravel, stiffness, damping ratio, volume change, sand

Published Online


How to Cite

Bayat, M. “Effect of Sand Fouling on the Dynamic Properties and Volume Change of Gravel During Cyclic Loadings”, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 64(3), pp. 741–750, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPci.15857



Research Article