A Lagrange Multiplier-based Technique within the Nonlinear Finite Element Method in Cracked Columns
In this research, two energy-based techniques, called Lagrange multiplier and conversion matrix, are applied to involve crack parameters into the non-linear finite element relations of Euler-Bernoulli beams made of functionally graded materials. The two techniques, which divide a cracked element into three parts, are implemented to enrich the secant and tangent stiffness matrices. The Lagrange multiplier technique is originally proposed according to the establishment of a modified total potential energy equation by adding continuity conditions equations of the crack point. The limitation of the conversion matrix in involving the relevant non-linear equations is the main motivation in representing the Lagrange multiplier. The presented Lagrange multiplier is a problem-solving technique in the cracked structures, where both geometrical nonlinearity and material inhomogeneity areas are considered in the analysis like the post-buckling problem of cracked functionally graded material columns. Accordingly, some case-studies regarding the post-buckling analysis of cracked functionally graded material columns under mechanical and thermal loads are used to evaluate the results.