Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Volcanic Tuff (Malatya, Turkey) Used as Building Stone for the Restoring Cultural Heritage
Old stone buildings constitute a significant percentage of the residential buildings in many countries. These structures are highly vulnerable, and important losses in masonry structures occur even in moderate earthquakes. Therefore, safety evaluations of these structures have gained significant attention in recent years. In this study, the mechanical, physical and microstructural characteristics of tuff samples used in the old buildings were investigated in Battalgazi within the boundaries of Malatya Province during the Seljuk time. The characteristics of the building materials were examined in detail using in-situ and laboratory tests. Because adequate samples could not be obtained from the historical buildings, quarry areas with the same characteristics were identified. First, original building stone (OBS) used in construction was taken from fallen and unusable blocks. Then, the properties of the restoration building stones (RBS) brought from the quarries were investigated. The RBS samples were also examined using in the laboratory, and the mechanical and microstructural properties of the building components were determined. The dynamic and static moduli of elasticity were determined using ultrasonic pulse velocity and uniaxial compression test. The OBS and RBS samples yielded similar results after the microstructural analyses. Our results showed that the dynamic elastic modulus value was higher than the static elastic modulus value. The results revealed by both methods showed that the static and dynamic elastic moduli were closely linked. The OBS and RBS samples exhibited microlitic porphyritic and vesicular textures and nearly the same mineralogical and textural characteristics.