An improved ray optimization algorithm for design of truss structures


  • Ali Kaveh
  • Majid Ilchi Ghazaan
  • Taha Bakhshpoori


The ray optimization algorithm is a recently developed metaheuristic algorithm which was conceptualized using the relationship between the angles of incidence and fraction based on Snell’s law. In ray optimization, each agent is modeled as a ray of light that moves in the search space in order to find the global or near-global optimum solution. This paper develops an Improved Ray Optimization (IRO) algorithm for solving optimization problems. IRO employs a new approach for generating new solution vectors which has no limitation on the number of variables, so in the process of algorithm there is no need to divide the variables into groups like RO. The procedure which returns the violated agents into feasible search space is also modified. These improvements enhance the accuracy and convergence rate of the RO. The Simulation results of the IRO for benchmark mathematical optimization problems and truss structures are compared to those of the standard RO and some well-known meta-heuristic algorithms, respectively. Numerical results indicate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed IRO.


Modified ray optimization, Snell’s refraction law, optimal design, truss structures, local best memory

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Published Online


How to Cite

Kaveh, A., Ghazaan, M. I., Bakhshpoori, T. “An improved ray optimization algorithm for design of truss structures”, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 57(2), pp. 97–112, 2013.



Research Article