Development and Comparison of Quantitative Phase Analysis for Duplex Stainless Steel Weld
In duplex stainless steels the ideally 1:1 ratio of austenite-to-ferrite phases ensures the outstanding mechanical and corrosion properties compared to other, conventional stainless steel grades. However, this phase balance can be easily shifted to a mostly austenitic or mostly ferritic microstructures, depending on the welding process and heat input. In order to determine the phase ratio, several methods are available to use, such as Feritscope measurements, ASTM E562 manual point count method (on metallographic images) or quantitative image analysis. From these methods, Feritscope measurements cannot be applied to determine phase quantification in the narrow heat affected zone of duplex stainless steel welds – because of the very limited heat input. The manual point count method is very dependent of the assessor and cannot be automated. In this paper a histogram-based image analyzing process was developed, using Beraha's etchant solution. The results were compared to Feritscope measurements and a very good correlation (R2 = 0.9995) was found. This method will give the ability to easily and automatically measure phase ratio in weld metal, heat affected zone or in subsurface regions of multi-pass welds.