Energy Balance of a Low Energy House with Building Structures with Active Heat Transfer Control
A qualitatively new dimension has been introduced to the issue of building structures for energy-efficient buildings by the system of Active Thermal Insulation (ATI), which is already applied in the construction of such buildings. ATI are embedded pipe systems in the envelope structures of buildings, into which we supply a heat-carrying medium with adjusted temperature, so this constitutes a combined building-energy system. This introduces the concept of an internal energy source understood as an energy system integrated into the zone between the static part and the thermal insulation part of the building structure envelope. Under certain conditions, the ATI can serve as a heat recuperator or as an energy collector for a heat pump application. ATI consists of pipe systems embedded in building structures, in which the medium circulates heated by energy from any heat source. The function of the system is to reduce or eliminate heat losses through non-transparent structures in the winter and at the same time to reduce or eliminate heat gains in the summer. It is especially recommended to apply heat sources using renewable energy sources due to the required low temperatures of the heating medium and thus shorten the heating period in the building. Also recommended is to apply ATI for the use of waste heat. Buildings with a given system show low energy consumption and therefore meet the requirements of Directive no. 2018/844/EU, according to which, from 01.01.2021, all new buildings for housing and civic amenities should have energy needs close to zero.