Multi-region Input-Output-based Carbon and Energy Footprint Analysis of U.S. Manufacturing
In this research, U.S. manufacturing activities' life cycle-based carbon and energy footprint impacts have been quantified, taking international trade linkages with the rest of the world into account. The U.S economy has been integrated into a multi-region input-output (MRIO) life cycle assessment framework where total of 40 major economies, including the USA, China, Russia, and others, plus the rest of the world (ROW) were modelled to assess global energy and carbon footprint impacts. Each country's economy is assumed to compromise 35 major industries based on the WIOD database classification. A total of 1435 (41 × 35 = 1435) industries has therefore been taken to represent the global structure of the world economy. The novelty of the approach is that the MRIO model has been developed in a stochastic fashion, plus global trade-linked uncertainties have also been taken into consideration. Top carbon emitting and energy consumer industries and countries have been analysed using data analytics and statistical modelling methods. The results show that the USA is the largest contributor to the total carbon footprint (CFP) and the total energy footprint (EFP) with 81.73% and 84%, respectively. Moreover, the agriculture/hunting forestry/fishing sector and the electricity/gas/water supply sectors dominate the overall U.S. carbon footprint, contributing 22% and 21.28%, respectively. The coke/refined petroleum/nuclear fuel sector has the largest share of the total energy footprint, with 47.9% of the total impacts.