A Review of Fluoride Removal from Groundwater

  • Margandan Karunanithi

    Department of Chemistry, IFET College of Engineering, Villupuram, Tamilnadu, India

  • Rachna Agarwal

    Department of Chemistry, Mody University, Rajasthan, India

  • Kushal Qanungo

    Department of Chemistry, Chandigarh University, NH-95, Gharuan, Mohali(Punjab), 140413, India


Most of the arid and semiarid zones of the Indian subcontinent are seriously affected by the fluorosis problem due to high concentration of the fluoride in ground water. Due to leaching of fluoride from the fluoride bearing rocks, the groundwater gets contaminated with fluoride. The different techniques for fluoride removal namely, the Activated alumina, the Nalgonda technique, bone charcoal, contact precipitation, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, ion-exchange, clay column, bio-adsorbents and MgO are discussed in detail. Their advantages and disadvantages together with the applicability in actual use also been discussed in the paper.

Keywords: fluoride, defluoridation, water purification
Published online
How to Cite
Karunanithi, M., Agarwal, R., Qanungo, K. “A Review of Fluoride Removal from Groundwater”, Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 63(3), pp. 425-437, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPch.12076