Development of Physical Properties of Apple during Dehydration
The evolution of physical properties (shrinkage, density and porosity) of cylindrical shaped apple samples (Golden Delicious) during convective drying was investigated. For this purpose, the weight and the dimensions (diameter, height) of apple samples were monitoring at regular time intervals of the drying process. A constant drying rate period was not detected although considering the reduction of the exchange surface area. Apple exhibited a clear anisotropy behavior of the shrinkage coefficients. The volume shrinkage of apple samples showed a linear relationship with moisture content (R2 = 0.996). A theoretical relation between the surface ratio and the volume ratio was determined (R2 = 0.956). During drying process, the apparent density of apples decreased with decrease in moisture content following a second-degree polynomial curve (R2 = 0.991), whereas the true density aggrandized with removal of water. The porosity of apple samples was showed to increase as drying progressed. At the starting of the drying process, the porosity changes resulted from the reduction of the total volume. Then, the porosity changes during drying were found to be a consequence of a loss of water and a simultaneous reduction of gaseous volume.