Effect of Convective Drying Method of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) on Drying Kinetics, Bioactive Components and Sensory Characteristics of Bread with Chokeberry Powder
The effects of three dehydration temperatures at 50, 60 and 70 °C of convective drying method on fresh fruits of black chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa L.) were evaluated. The drying temperatures were found to have significantly different effects on the characteristics of dried fruits and powders, made by the dried fruits. The maximum drying rate at a temperature of 50 °C was 59 g/h, at 60 °C 102 g/h, and at 70 °C 115 g/h, and thus the drying time was 37 hours, 27 hours and 23 hours respectively. The drying temperature at 50 °C caused the least damage to the cell structure of the fresh chokeberries, bioactive components (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols) and total antioxidativity. The dehydrated chokeberries at the temperature of 50 °C had the highest ratio of total anthocyanins (376.89 ± 5.73 mg cyn-3-glu / 100 g dm), total flavonoids (1037.19 ± 3.83 mg CE / 100 g dm), phenols (1918.79 ± 3.26 mg GAE / 100 g dm) and antioxidant activity (37.11 ± 0.28 mg TE / 100 g dm). The drying process at a temperature of 50 °C required longer drying period, higher energy need and produced the chokeberry powder, which gave the bread with the best sensory characteristics, compared to a drying process at a temperature of 60 °C and 70 °C.