Operational Methods for Charging of Electric Vehicles
The increasing number of electric vehicles induces a new relationship between the electric vehicles, transportation network and electric network. The deployment of the charging infrastructure is a prerequisite of the widespread of electric vehicles. Furthermore, the charging process and energy management have a significant influence on the operation of both the transportation and electric networks. Therefore, we have elaborated novel operational methods that support the deployment of charging infrastructure for electric cars and buses operating in public bus service, and the energy management. Weighted sum-models were developed to assess candidate sites for public charging stations. The mathematical model of public bus services was elaborated that supports the optimization of static charging infrastructure at bus stops and terminals without schedule adjustments. The flexibility and predictability of charging sessions were identified as the main differences between charging infrastructure deployment for cars and buses. Furthermore, the flows of energy, information and value have been revealed among the components of charging with a focus on commercial locations, which is the basis of energy flow optimization on the smart grid.