Optimal DG Unit Placement and Sizing in Radial Distribution Network for Power Loss Minimization and Voltage Stability Enhancement
The optimal allocation and size of decentralized generating units are essential to minimize power losses, while meeting the demand for active and reactive power in a distribution system. In other words, most of the total energy produced can be efficiently exploited by end users. In addition, if the DGs are of optimal size and location in the distribution system, the reliability, stability and efficiency of the power system are guaranteed. This paper focuses on reducing power losses and improving the voltage profile by accurately identifying the optimal location and sizing of Distributed Generation based on three indexes, namely the IVM Index Vector Method, the VDI Voltage Deviation Index and the VSI Voltage Stability Index. Two types of DGs were considered for the analysis: DGs operating with unit power factor and DGs operating with a lagging power factor. Three optimization algorithms are applied to determine the optimal sizes of decentralized generation units in a power distribution network which are GWO, WOA and PSO. The results obtained in this article show that the three algorithms give very similar values. DG at lagging power factor gives better results compared with those obtained with DGs at unity power factor. In terms of loss reduction and minimum bus voltage, the best results are obtained for the VSI index with a DG at a power factor of 0.9.